Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments, Types And Diagnoses

Anemia (from the Greek alhaima, lack of blood) is a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is responsible for two main functions at the circulatory level:

  1. Collect carbon dioxide from tissues and transport it to the lungs
  2. Capture oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli and carry it to the tissues. It is a protein rich in iron that gives blood its characteristic red color.

Normal hemoglobin levels in men are between 13.8 to 17.2 grams per deciliter (g / dL) and in women between 12.1 to 15.1 g / dL.

In itself, more than a disease, anemia is a symptom that should not be ignored, as it may be indicating the presence of serious diseases .

Blood is made up of, among other elements, red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma.

The count of blood components varies depending on different factors, among them the most important are age, sex, altitude above sea level in which the person lives and habits such as smoking. Also, specific, transitory situations, such as pregnancy or the presence of external bleeding, can suddenly change the measurements. Although iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia (iron deficiency anemia), its origin may be something else. Anemias caused by nutritional deficiencies also include those caused by a deficiency of folic acid (folates), vitamin B12 and vitamin A. Other situations and diseases that can lead to the appearance of anemia are acute and chronic inflammation,

Red blood cells are round and flat and, like white blood cells and platelets, are made in the bone marrow. Although in some types of anemia there is a deficit of red blood cells; in others, all three types of blood cells may be decreased.

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Is it known by other names?

Although anemia is not known by other names, it is associated with malnutrition, exhaustion, weakness, starvation, and thinness.


What are your causes?

The three most common causes of anemia are:

  1. Insufficient production of red blood cells. This happens by:
  • Iron deficiency
  • Rheumatic diseases
  • Medullary aplasia (partial or total disappearance of the cells responsible for the production of blood in the bone marrow)
  • Bone marrow infiltration by tumors
  • Chronic renal insufficiency
  1. Disorders in the maturation of red blood cells in the marrow, related to:
  • Vitamin B 12 or folic acid deficiency.
  • Blood diseases such as refractory anemias
  1. Destruction or loss of red blood cells faster than they are produced, as a result of:
  • Bleeding of any origin
  • Intravascular rupture
  • Alteration of its membrane

In children, the most common causes of anemia are iron deficiency (iron deficiency), acute inflammation, thalassemia, sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis, enzyme disease, leukemia, aplasia, and erythoblastopenia. In adults, iron deficiency, chronic diseases, CRF, folic acid or Vitamin B12 deficiencies, AHA, hereditary spherocytosis, FMD, myeloptysis, and aplasia.

The origin of anemias may be related to the shape and size of the red blood cells. Under this concept, anemias are classified as microcytic anemia, normocytic anemia and macrocytic anemia.

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According to the cause that gives rise to the appearance of anemia, they are classified into:

  • Blood loss anemias: bleeding
  • Anemias due to poor production of red blood cells: idiopathic, congenital, aplastic.
  • Hemolytic anemia: as a consequence of drug intake, spherocytosis, due to hemoglobin pathologies, congenital glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, due to deficiencies in enzyme synthesis.
  • Secondary anemias: As a consequence of the existence of another disease or process: Cancer, cirrhosis, epistaxis, AIDS, ulcers, among others.
  • Anemias due to deficiency: iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B9, erythropoietin.

Who is at risk for it?

Although anyone of any age can suffer from anemia, there are groups that due to their condition or age are more likely to have it:

  • Men and women of any age with diets poor in Vitamin B 12 : This includes people who eat a diet rich in precooked and / or meatless foods. Vegans may have a slightly higher risk of iron and vitamin deficiencies, due to several causes, the main one being that Vitamin B 12 is only found in animal products. Although some legumes and vegetables provide iron, its absorption is lower when it comes from plants than from meat.
  • Women of childbearing age and pregnant women : those of childbearing age, due to blood loss resulting from heavy menstruation. The pregnant woman is a product of low concentrations of iron and folic acid, and blood dilution due to increased production of plasma in the first six months of gestation.
  • Babies up to one year of age : Includes premature babies and those who receive either only breast milk or commercial milk that is not fortified with iron.
  • Children between 1 and 2 years old : If they do not get enough iron in the diet.
  • Women of menopausal or post-menopausal age : Although the iron requirement is less, its absorption can also be more complicated. Those who have low iron diets can have it.
  • Older adults : It is usually associated with chronic diseases, such as arthritis, chronic kidney failure, loss of blood in the stool, leukemia and lymphomas, among others.

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How can it be diagnosed?

Although anemia usually presents with symptoms, it is not always the case, to determine that a person has anemia will take into account:

  • Medical and family history: When consulting the doctor it is important to tell him if there are cases of anemia in the family, as well as to honestly explain to him what his diet is, what diseases he has suffered or suffers and what medications, indicated by other doctors or over the counter, usually drink. All of this information will support your medical history.
  • Medical examination: A complete check-up will aid in the diagnosis. The evaluation may include checking the heart rhythms, to determine if they are regular or there are arrhythmias; check breathing for agitation, palpate organs such as the liver and spleen in the abdomen, and even a pelvic or rectal exam to explore other areas of blood loss.
  • Diagnostic tests: through blood tests you can determine what type of anemia you have and how severe it is.
  • Complete blood count: To determine the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood. Distorted results can be both a diagnosis of anemia and of other blood disorders; although it can also indicate that there is an infection or another disease.
  • Other tests or procedures: These include hemoglobin electrophoresis, to diagnose the type of anemia; reticulocyte count to determine the number of immature red blood cells and whether the bone marrow is producing them at the correct rate; serum iron, serum ferritin, transferrin and total iron uptake capacity, all of them to measure the amount of iron in the blood.
  • Evidence of the existence of other diseases such as: kidney failure, lead poisoning and deficiencies of Vitamin B 12 and / or folic acid.

Signs and symptoms of those who suffer from it

Anemia is often associated with a feeling of exhaustion and weakness, known as tiredness. Anemia manifests as a lack of energy to carry out daily activities. Some mild anemias can occur without any symptoms, and severe anemias can bring with them more pronounced signs and symptoms. In general, the signs and symptoms of anemia are:

  • Feeling of suffocation (shortness of breath)
  • Low concentration.
  • Memory problems.
  • Headache.
  • Cold extremities.
  • Chest pain.

Severe anemia (or anemia that lasts for long periods of time without treatment) can damage various organs of the body because the blood cannot carry enough oxygen to them. On the other hand, those who have diseases that compromise their immune system, such as cancer or HIV, can become even weaker if they suffer from anemia and reduce the effectiveness of the treatment they receive to alleviate these diseases.

In certain cases, those with anemia may suffer arrhythmias, that is, difficulties in the speed or rhythm of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias can damage the heart and even lead to heart failure.

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Medical and natural treatments

Some natural treatments to alleviate anemia are inclined to obtain iron from legumes, fruits or vegetables and others, in addition to adding Vitamin C that allows calcium to be fixed. In other cases it will be necessary to supplement Vitamin B12 and / or folic acid:

  • Take an infusion of walnut leaves twice a day (20 grams of leaves for every half liter of water) with a teaspoon of cod liver oil and a teaspoon of bee pollen.
  • Beet juice is mixed with red grapefruit juice. Take two tablespoons four times a day.
  • Make a carrot, radish, turnip and watercress smoothie and take between one and two times a day.
  • Eat lentils or peas that have been prepared with onion.
  • Make a smoothie containing, peeled and chopped, 1/2 beet or beet, a carrot, a tomato, a chopped celery stalk, three spinach leaves, 2 watercress branches, a sprig of parsley, two lettuce leaves and the juice of a lemon in a little water. Take freshly made and repeat three times a week.
  • Blend a tablespoon of lemon, the yolk of an egg and a tablespoon of cane molasses. Take three times a week.
  • In a glass of milk blended with pear and apricot seeds. Take a glass of this juice daily for 10 days.
  • Prepare an infusion that contains alfalfa, shepherd’s purse, horsetail and green nettle, in a proportion of 4 tablespoons for each liter of water. Boil for 3 minutes and let it rest until it reaches room temperature. Strain and drink, like water. If the taste is unpleasant, you can add a few drops of lemon juice.
  • Mix 5 tablespoons of fennel seeds in a liter of white wine and marinate for a week. Strain the preparation and take a glass a day.
  • Add water, dark grapes and two sprigs of parsley to the blender. Have a glass for two weeks after having breakfast.
  • Blend 2 carrots, 1 beet with a little water and a couple of fresh nettle leaves. Take 2 glasses a day of this shake. YES it is possible to add honey and royal jelly.
  • Make a smoothie of 3 chard leaves, 2 watercress leaves, about 10 almonds, 1 glass of soy milk, 2 tablespoons of oatmeal and the juice of a lemon. Take one day yes and one no.
  • Wild rose and leaves are used in Bach Flowers.
  • To the liquid resulting from boiling an artichoke, add half a cup of oatmeal to make a cream. This takes one day yes and one day no.

Can it be prevented? How?

Anemia could be prevented as long as its origin is not hereditary. That is, when it comes to anemia acquired due to a diet deficit or due to the consumption of some medications. Regular consumption of foods rich in iron, such as beef liver, red meat in general, and seafood; green leafy vegetables such as spinach and watercress, as well as dried fruits including almonds, walnuts, plums and raisins and citrus fruits, to promote the absorption of iron; they can be of great help.

On the other hand, it is important to see the symptoms and signs of suffering from anemia to consult a doctor , to determine what type of anemia is suffered and to receive instructions as appropriate.

Learn to live with anemia safely

Those who suffer from anemia should take special care of their diet, visit their doctor regularly and follow the instructions he gives you. Anemia can arise as a consequence or simultaneously with other diseases, so it is important to treat it early .

During pregnancy, how does anemia affect?

The unborn baby meets its iron needs by taking its share before the mother’s body absorbs what it needs. Therefore, it is important that the iron contribution of both is adequate. Pregnant women who have suffered from anemia during the first 6 months of pregnancy, increase their risk of having a premature birth, a low weight baby or even a child who suffers from anemia from birth .

Anemia is the most common complication during pregnancy, 9 out of 10 women can suffer from it and it is caused by a decrease in circulating iron levels in the mother’s blood. During the gestation process, 50 percent more blood circulates than normal. Therefore, the body of the expectant mother needs more iron in order to produce more hemoglobin, for the extra blood demanded by the baby and the placenta. Without iron, hemoglobin production falls. Pregnant women should take 30 percent more iron.

Anemia during pregnancy has numerous effects on the health of the future baby, including increased risk of growth retardation, decreased cognitive performance, spinal and brain defects. It also raises the risk of miscarriage and low birth weight thus increasing the risk of infant mortality. Finally, it can cause complications during delivery.

To meet the additional demand for iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid that pregnant women require, the consumption of foods rich in these elements and the intake of supplements that contain them are recommended. Among foods, red meat is the preferred choice, although other plant-based foods may be useful for this purpose, such as legumes, broccoli, spinach, beets, raisins, dates, plums, and cereals. Normally, the doctor indicates iron supplements that provide between 60 and 120 milligrams daily .

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Is there anemia of the premature baby?

Between the 7th and 9th month of gestation, the body of the fetus is responsible for storing iron stores. For this reason, premature babies often suffer from anemia. Consequently, babies born prematurely may have lower cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the heart increases the heart rate, so they could have tachycardia.

Other causes of anemia in the premature baby are:

  • The transfusion of blood from one twin to another (which occurs on some occasions and without apparent cause in twin pregnancies.
  • Antenatal anemia, caused by either chronic placental bleeding or placental abruption .
  • Clamping the baby’s umbilical cord ahead of time.
  • Take repeat blood samples for analysis.
  • That you contract infections or have blood incompatibility, which can cause the destruction of a large number of red blood cells.

Premature babies are prescribed iron supplements for prevention up to 6 months of age. In cases of severe anemia, it may be necessary to give you transfusions only of whole blood or only of what is known as packed red blood cells (red blood cells).

Postpartum has its risks

In the postpartum period , also called the puerperium, some women may suffer from anemia, but it is usually a temporary situation . It is the product of the pregnancy process, in which the baby has required significant iron supplementation and the significant loss of blood during delivery. When it comes to a normal delivery, women can lose up to half a liter of blood, if they have the baby by cesarean section the figure can reach up to one liter. In the postpartum period, the most common anemia is iron deficiency (due to lack of iron) and should be treated immediately.

Treatments for women with postpartum anemia include oral or intravenous iron supplements. The former are indicated for milder cases, while the latter in situations with a very low concentration of iron in the blood. In either case, the doctor must diagnose anemia and indicate treatment to overcome it.

Is there a relationship between anemia and diabetes?

It is common for people with diabetes to also suffer from anemia , especially those patients with impaired kidney function and those who have high levels of protein in the urine (proteinuria). The presence of these two conditions indicates that the kidneys may be affected. Kidney disease is one of the best known causes of anemia in diabetic patients.

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone in the blood responsible for making red blood cells. If the patient suffers from diabetic nephropathy, kidney failure, infections or tumors, the production of EPO may be decreased or not produced, and since this hormone orders the bone marrow to produce red blood cells, anemia begins when it is scarce.

A third of diabetics usually suffer from anemia and it is very important to know this, since the rate of fatal events in those with both conditions is high.

Many times the symptoms of anemia are mistaken for low blood sugar or hypoglycemia. A series of symptoms or signs of anemia in diabetics are fatigue, tiredness, hair loss, and headaches and sore throats; and in more severe cases tachycardia and shortness of breath.

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Proper nutrition and prohibited foods

Patients with diabetes and anemia must take care of the sources of nutrients, especially proteins of animal origin, because the renal complications of the two conditions bring with them that the kidneys have diminished capacities to process this type of food. A) Yes. The consumption of liver, chicken, eggs, red meat, indicated for those who want to raise their iron levels should be done with caution. It is preferable to go for fish such as sardines, tuna, salmon, herring, anchovies, anchovies and trout. It can include some shellfish. Like mussels, clams, cockles and look for sources of iron in vegetables like soybeans (soybeans), all green leafy (spinach, kale, watercress), grains like beans, lentils, peas, chickpeas, millet or quinoa; fresh fruits, such as peaches, guavas, apricots, passion fruit, or dried, such as almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts, peanuts, and pistachios;

It should be remembered that the consumption of foods rich in sugar, such as cakes and pastries in general, sweets, pasta, potatoes, jams, sweet wine or liqueurs and common salt are contraindicated in diabetic people.

The doctor should indicate a personalized diet and iron supplement, combined with Vitamin C, necessary to promote the absorption of the mineral.

Can anemia cause leukemia?

There is a predisposition of those suffering from leukemia to have anemia, especially in advanced stages of the disease.

Types of anemia

There are several types of anemia, among which the most outstanding we will explain below.

Sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is a health condition in which the body abnormally produces red blood cells. In this condition, the appearance of the cells resembles a crescent and they have a shorter life span than the rest of the cells than if they have a normal shape and size, that is, they are circular red blood cells, which gives the appearance of anemia.

Sickle cells block blood flow, which can be painful and cause organ damage.


Sickle cell anemia is a genetic condition in which the person with the condition is born with two sickle cell genes, acquiring one from each parent.


Among the most common symptoms of this disease are problems related to anemia, weakness, tiredness, breathing problems, pain, dizziness and chills.


To determine if this type of anemia is suffered, a blood test can be performed, in some countries there are evaluation programs and tests are performed on newborns to determine the condition from an early age.

Although sickle cell anemia still has no cure, treatments can be done to relieve symptoms and minimize possible complications.

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Sickle Cell Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia is a non-contagious blood disorder, it is a rare condition but requires a lot of attention as it can be serious. This ailment is due to the fact that the bone marrow (the internal, spongy and red part of the bone) does not produce any of the three types of blood cells necessary: ​​red blood cells responsible for providing oxygen to every part of the body, white blood cells that provide protection against external agents such as germs, viruses and bacteria and finally platelets that are responsible for blood clotting.

This disease does not occur in a particular group, and can affect different people regardless of sex, age or race.


Among others, the following causes can be mentioned:

  • Hereditary conditions.
  • Infections and autoimmune diseases.
  • Toxic substances, such as arsenic and pesticides.
  • Cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments.


Symptoms of this condition include:

  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Tiredness.
  • Weakness.
  • Dizziness

Aplastic anemia can lead to heart problems such as arrhythmias or heart failure.

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Aplastic Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses


Aplastic anemia can be diagnosed with no apparent cause, but environmental causes are also involved. There are isolated cases in which it can be determined that this condition is due to genetic factors.

Fanconi anemia

It is an inherited condition that primarily affects the bone marrow, causing a decrease in the production of blood cells. This disease is diagnosed between the ages of 2 and 15.

Fanconi anemia should not be confused with Fanconi syndrome which is a kidney disorder.


Among others, the following causes can be mentioned:

  • Fanconi anemia is caused by an abnormal gene that damages cells, preventing the renewal and repair of the affected DNA.
  • To suffer from Fanconi anemia it is necessary for each parent to contribute an abnormal gene to the person’s genetic makeup.


Symptoms of this condition include:

  • Red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet count below normal levels.
  • Due to insufficient white blood cells, infections can occur with some frequency.
  • Bleeding excessively due to low platelets.
  • Digestive and heart problems
  • Bone problems in particular affecting the spine, hip, ribs and even the spine.
  • Changes in the appearance of the skin, spots and vitiligo.
  • Ear and eye problems.
  • Malformation of one or both kidneys.
  • Short stature
  • Problems in the extremities, especially the upper ones, which may present abnormalities in the arms, hands and fingers.

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Fanconi Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Iron deficiency anemia

Anemia is an ailment in which the body does not have the necessary red blood cells to be healthy, in particular iron deficiency anemia occurs when the body does not have the necessary amount of iron, which is what helps to produce red blood cells, this is the most common type of anemia.

Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen to the different tissues of the body, these red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and can circulate in the body for 3 to 4 months until they are discarded by the spleen.


Iron plays a fundamental role in red blood cells, without it the blood is not able to transport oxygen effectively throughout the body, the necessary iron is obtained from several sources: through food, with the intake of supplements iron and reusing this mineral from old red blood cells that still live in the body.

This is how iron deficiency anemia occurs when the body’s iron reserves drop due to a poor absorption of iron, due to the loss of more blood cells than the body is capable of producing, poor food intake in iron or by requiring a greater amount of this mineral either due to pregnancy or lactation.


If the stage of anemia is mild, it may be an asymptomatic condition or with mild symptoms that slowly disappear.

Among the most common symptoms are:

  • Weakness or tiredness
  • Frequent headaches
  • Attention and concentration deficit

As the pathology progresses, other symptoms appear:

  • Nail weakness
  • Pallor
  • Dizziness when sitting up
  • Difficulty breathing


Diagnosis is made through blood tests to measure the levels of:

  • Hematocrits and hemoglobin
  • Bone marrow biopsy
  • ferritin serum
  • Fecal occult blood test
  • And any other diagnostic test based on your symptoms and clinical picture.

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Iron Deficiency Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

hemolytic anemia

The life span of red blood cells in the body is approximately 120 days, however, when suffering from hemolytic anemia, this period of useful life is shortened.


When the bone marrow that is responsible for the production of new red blood cells does not fulfill its function properly and thus be able to replace the old red blood cells that are being expelled from the body by the spleen or destroyed prematurely, what is produced is known as hemolytic anemia

There are an infinity of causes, however some can be listed:

  • Immune system problems that mistakenly detect that red blood cells are foreign substances to the body and destroy them as a protective measure
  • Infections
  • Genetic causes
  • Receive blood transfusion from a donor with whom there is no match


Among the most common symptoms are:

  • Weakness or tiredness
  • Frequent headaches
  • Attention and concentration deficit

As the pathology progresses, other symptoms appear:

  • Nail weakness
  • Pallor
  • Dizziness when sitting up
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Tongue pain


Perform a complete blood count or a hemogram with which you can identify what type of hemolytic anemia is suffered.

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Hemolytic Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Macrocytic anemia

Macrocytic anemia is one of the most common, which is generally due to the absence of vitamin B12, this may be due to its low intake in the diet, for example vegetarians who eliminate animal proteins from their diet and therefore do not receive this important vitamin that is not found in vegetables but in animal proteins.


In general, macrocytic anemia is presented by the absence of cobalamin, however the possibility that it is due to the lack of other essential nutrients for the production of red blood cells such as vitamin B9 and folic acid is not lost. For this reason, it is essential to maintain a balanced diet that allows the necessary nutrients to be absorbed from food, in the same way, pregnant women and children should be monitored with special attention, maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet.


The symptoms that occur in patients with macrocytic anemia vary from person to person and generally the symptoms are mild or absent.

Among the most common symptoms are:

  • Weakness or tiredness
  • Frequent headaches
  • Attention and concentration deficit

As the pathology progresses, other symptoms appear:

  • Nail weakness
  • Pallor
  • Dizziness when sitting up
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Bleeding gums
  • Tongue pain

If the condition of macrocytic anemia extends over time, the person may suffer neurological damage due to the lack of vitamin B12 in the body, even leading to cases of depression and dementia.

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Macrocytic Anemia: Medical and natural treatments, Causes and Diagnosis

Megaloblastic anemia

In megaloblastic anemia, red blood cells are larger than average, generating negative effects on the body.


Basically it is due to a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid.

There are other less common causes that are also responsible for this type of anemia:

  • Inherited disorders
  • Leukemia
  • Alcoholism
  • Drugs that affect DNA such as those used to perform chemotherapies.
  • Certain anticonvulsants


Basically the symptoms of megaloblastic anemia are those of an anemic syndrome:

  • Weakness or tiredness
  • Frequent headaches
  • Attention and concentration deficit
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Decreased libido

As the pathology progresses, other symptoms appear:

  • Nail weakness
  • Paleness of skin and mucous
  • Dizziness when sitting up
  • Difficulty breathing

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Megaloblastic Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Microcytic anemia

Microcytic anemia is characterized by the production of red blood cells that are smaller than their normal size, which is known as microcytosis.


Generally, having undergone a blood transfusion can trigger microcytic anemia, since the donor’s red blood cells may be a different size from the person who receives it, in the same way the hemoglobin level between both bloods is different and can trigger in different symptoms.

In the same way, the smallest red blood cells can be a genetic condition or product of an iron deficiency since, due to their size, the amount of hemoglobin inside is lower than in a normal red blood cell.

The causes of microcytic anemia can vary depending on the age and gender of the patient. Generally in men, children and adolescents it is due to an iron deficiency while in women there are several causes, among which pregnancy and lactation stand out.


There are some asymptomatic patients, however in others certain symptoms may occur:

  • Tiredness, fatigue and weakness.
  • Decreased body temperature to the touch
  • Migraine.
  • Chest discomfort.
  • Loss of concentration
  • Decreased appetite
  • Loss of body weight.
  • Jaundice

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Microcytic Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Normocytic anemia

The absence of red blood cells in the blood can cause normocytic anemia. Blood loss, marrow problems or kidney disease are associated with this disease, another cause of this condition is due to hereditary factors.


When the bone marrow decreases the production of red blood cells or there is a considerable loss of these, normocytic anemia occurs causing a decrease in hemoglobin levels.

The most common cause of anemia is the absence of iron since these are the main component of red blood cells, essential for optimal functioning.

Massive blood loss or low iron levels from a diet low in this mineral are other causes of this health condition.


In some people this type of anemias can be asymptomatic, however in others tiredness and fatigue, paleness or heart problems can be key symptoms for its diagnosis.

There are other symptoms that are also associated with other types of anemia:

  • Decreased appetite
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Difficult to focus
  • Insomnia
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • Pale lips
  • Nail weakness
  • Chest pain
  • Cold skin

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Normocytic Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Pernicious anemia

If the intestine is not able to absorb vitamin B12 properly, it generates a decrease in red blood cells, triggering pernicious anemia.


The elimination of the diet or insufficient intake of animal protein from: beef, poultry, shellfish, eggs and dairy reduces vitamin B12 in the body since it is from its consumption in the diet that this important vitamin can be obtained because the human body is unable to produce it on its own.

The intestine loses the ability to absorb vitamin B12 properly when stomach cells do not produce a special protein called intrinsic factor.

Among the causes with the highest incidence in pernicious anemia are:

  • Atrophic gastritis: produced by the weakening of the intestinal mucosa that lines the stomach.
  • Genetic factors: the body’s genetic predisposition to attack the protein that allows the absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestine called intrinsic factor.
  • To a lesser extent, there are genetic causes who inherit the pathology from their children, which is known as congenital pernicious anemia.


In some cases this anemia goes unnoticed since it is asymptomatic, in other cases it presents some of these symptoms:

  • Fatigue, tiredness, lack of energy
  • Dizziness when sitting up
  • Bowel problems such as diarrhea or constipation
  • Pallor
  • inappetence
  • And in the worst cases: confusion, depression and dementia

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Pernicious Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

Sideroblastic anemia

Sideroblastic anemia is a bone marrow disorder characterized by the production of ringed sideroblasts instead of the normal circular red blood cells that the body needs.


It can be said that the appearance of sideroblastic anemia is multifactorial and they are not precisely identified, however the use of certain medications, exposure to gases and toxic products can be highlighted, and the hereditary component also plays a fundamental role.


In this type of anemia, the symptoms that occur are usually the same as those that occur in any of the types of anemia, among which the following can be highlighted:

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Headaches, migraines and migraines
  • Respiratory problems
  • insomnia

To learn more about this type of anemia, we invite you to read: Sideroblastic Anemia: Risks, Causes, Treatments and Diagnoses

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Kathie Sand always saw the world of beauty as the terrain on which to build her professional career, a goal that was clear to her when she was only 15 years old. Her great concern to expand knowledge led her to settle in Paris where she studied hand in hand with the best beauty professionals and with the most advanced techniques for skin care.

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