Clindamycin: Contraindications, Properties And Benefits

Clindamycin is an antibiotic of semisynthetic origin, derived from lincosamide , its route of administration is oral, topical and parenteral.

The drugs corresponding to Lincosamides are lincomycin and clindamycin, among which the oral route is more widely accepted, thanks to the rapid effect of clindamycin.

Clindamycin is a drug that is generally reserved for intrahospital uses, when other drugs have become resistant to the bacteria that are to be attacked, since its bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects are exerted in a similar way to drugs such as Macrolides, with the advantage that the latter do not produce pseudomembranous colitis like clindamycin.

In recent days it has been applied in cases of toxoplasma encephalitis , like many antibiotics clindamycin can cause a series of side effects, such as, for example, that the large intestine suffers inflammation; it usually appears when the treatment is being taken or some time after the treatment has been completed.

Pseudomembranous Colitis and Clindamycin

Pseudomembranous colitis can be preceded by a prolonged treatment of broad spectrum antibiotics such as Clindamycin, Cephalosporins, and Quinolones due to the alteration in the intestinal bacterial flora, as a consequence of the intake of these drugs.

What is Pseudomembranous Colitis?

Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammation that occurs in the colon due to different factors.

An infestation with the bacterium Clostridium difficile originates , which is capable of releasing a toxin that damages the epithelium of the colon and produces intense diarrhea that may contain blood debris, with a foul odor and the presence of abdominal pain, which can lead to death.

This bacterium is capable of producing whitish plaques called pseudomembranes in the colon . In general, it is an opportunistic infection that appears mainly in people who are being treated with antibiotics or are in a hospital environment, it can also attack the elderly due to their vulnerability.

Enter and read this important article Inflammatory bowel disease

Why is pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clindamycin?

The main reason why this infection occurs is because it is an opportunistic bacterium , because it attacks the person when they are under treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics of the Clindamycin type.

This happens because not only the alteration of bacteria that cause damage to the organism are revealed, but they also affect bacteria that are considered normal flora of the intestine.

The bacteria that are part of the normal intestinal flora fulfill the function of protecting the intestine, as well as helping the degradation of the food that may reach this area to promote the reabsorption of the nutrients and vitamins that are required, so they are essential for the proper functioning of the colon.

A variation in them can cause infestations such as in this case of bacteria such as Clostridium difficile (which should be noted that it is part of the normal flora of the intestine), and produce significant damage to the area, capable of leading to a total imbalance of the organism and later death.

The diagnosis of this disease can be made through its symptoms and the history related to drug treatment such as Clindamycin, Cephalosporins or Quinolones.

Likewise, laboratory tests and examinations such as a colonoscopy can be performed to see in detail the conditions of the intestine, where the characteristic features of this bacterium are shown by the presence of speudomembranous plaques.

Often, if it is detected early, it can be treated and a fatal outcome of the disease avoided using drugs such as vancomycin, metronidazole or rifaximin when administered orally.

Mechanism of action of Clindamycin

Clindamycin can act as a bacteriostatic or bactericidal , everything will depend on the case in which this treatment is applied and the effect that you want to have by adjusting the doses of it.

Read the article we have on Bagomycin: Contraindications, Properties and Benefits

Apparently the effect of Clindamycin against bacteria is the ability of this drug to bind to the 50s ribosomal subunit , which induces the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis, which does not allow it to multiply and subsequently produces elimination of the bacteria.

What is Clindamycin used for?

Clindamycin is generally used to:

  • infections caused by bacteria in the upper respiratory tract : among these conditions we can mention those of the respiratory tract such as pneumonia, otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis.
  • infections of the reproductive system of women such as: abortions, postpartum endometritis, pelvic pain, bacterial vaginosis.
  • Skin and soft tissue. Like furuncolosis and cellulite, acne, rosacea, for the skin it is usually prescribed in the form of a topical solution (ointment, ointment).
  • Bone infections: which are related to diabetes, osteomyelitis in conjunction with other agents.

It is important to note that not all manifestations or symptoms can be caused by bacteria sensitive to Clindamycin, therefore, it is recommended that a series of studies and blood tests be carried out to determine if the symptoms really correspond to a bacterial infection.

Likewise, tests must be carried out to determine that the bacteria causing the infection is resistant to other drugs and has a marked sensitivity to Clindamycin, in order to opt for a treatment with this broad spectrum antibiotic.

In general, the infections that are treated with Clindamycin are treated intrahospital , to determine the progress in its antibacterial effect, in addition to evaluating the side effects from the ingestion of the drug as they occur.

Medications such as antibiotics (mainly), should not be self-medicated , since greater damage to the body can be produced by improper use of it.

Look here Tetracycline: Contraindications, Properties and Benefits

Clindamycin and its Side Effects

Clindamycin, like all existing drugs, has a series of very important side effects, even some of these effects can be serious.

We can mention as the first effect and perhaps the most dangerous: the gastrointestinal disorders that they can produce, such as pseudomembranous colitis.

It can cause a neuromuscular block in the Central Nervous System , although it is very rare.

On the skin it can behave as an inflammatory agent with the appearance of hives, rashes, blisters, peeling of the skin and red spots.

It can lead to the proliferation of bacteria, fungi in the vagina and cause vaginosis due to Candidas and opportunistic bacteria.

Leukopenia may occur in the blood, although it is rare that a case of these occurs with the administration of this drug.

Care and vigilance must be taken with liver transaminase values to determine proper liver function because it can be affected by prolonged use of this type of broad spectrum antibiotics such as clindamycin.

It should assess kidney function , as it is a drug which makes elimination through the renal system, so can affect the same and a retention occur in the body; causing edema and its subsequent consequences on the cardiovascular system.

Certain Precautions to Take into Account, Before Taking Clindamycin

Before taking this medication, you should consult your doctor and be sure that you are not allergic to its components, since asthmatic attacks or marked respiratory distress, edema of the face and other parts of the body, as well as skin rashes and itching may occur. . .

As a more serious reaction , anaphylactic shock may occur, which can lead to the death of the patient if it is not acted quickly, for which it is recommended that any change in the respiratory pattern or skin rash, it is necessary to go immediately to a hospital center (if you are not in one) for prompt action by health personnel and thus avoid a fatal outcome.

Check out our article on Spring Allergy Symptoms in Children

Other factors to consider when taking Clindamycin

  • If you suffer from any kidney disease: you should reduce the doses and increase the time of administration of the drug.
  • If you suffer from liver diseases: The doses should also be reduced and the interval of administration of the drug increased.
  • If acute and persistent diarrhea develops during or after treatment, you should immediately stop the drug and consult your doctor.
  • Clindamycin capsules contain lactose, if you suffer from lactose intolerance you should warn your doctor before starting to use Clindamycin.
  • In ampoules it contains benzyl alcohol, so it cannot be used in children under three years of age.
  • During pregnancy and lactation, the use of this antibiotic is not recommended because it crosses the placental barrier , likewise it can be obtained in breast milk, therefore it should only be used under strict medical order, if the medical professional decides that the benefits outweigh the risks with its administration.
  • There are no significant effects when handling machinery.

Indications for use of Clindamycin

You should always follow the doctor’s instructions when taking a drug, Clindamycin can generally be found in the following presentations:

  • Clindamycin 300 mg capsules.
  • Injectable Clindamycin comes in 300, 600, and 900 mg forms.
  • CLINWAS ( ointment)

Orally:

Generally, for adults 150mg to 450mg is prescribed every 6 hours when there are strong infections, it should be administered with a full glass of water.

For children: over 10 kilos, 8 to 20 mg / kg per day are recommended, distributed in 3 or 4 doses depending on the infection.

Intravenously:

In adults, a maximum of 600 mg per day is administered, unless they are very serious infections.

In children: it will depend on the age and weight.

Special care should be taken when administering this drug intravenously, since it irritates the veins, so it is recommended that at least the dissolution of this drug is done in 100 cc of physiological solution in a buretrol, to ensure take effect without causing damage to the route of administration or internally as in the case of liver and kidneys.

Do not forget to also read Liver: Diseases, Bacteria, Detoxify it, Cleanse it, Donations and Main Functions

Some Additional Clindamycin Treatments

Clindamycin can be applied in treatments for acne and bacterial vaginosis. Below is detailed.

Acne treatment

A thin layer of 1% gel is applied two or three times a day to the area to be treated, this for 6 to 8 weeks.

Treatment for bacterial vaginosis

  • In ovules:

A 100 mg egg is administered intravaginally for 7 days in a row at night.

  • In creams

5 grams of cream is administered intravaginally at bedtime.

This treatment is not recommended during pregnancy , because there have been cases of deliveries before the expected date.

Oral administration for adolescents and adults is: 300 mg per day for 7 days, twice daily.

Interactions of Clindamycin with other drugs.

The Clindamycin may have a synergistic effect with pyrimethamine resulting in potentiation of the effect against diseases such as AIDS.

Likewise, an antagonistic effect can occur in Clindamycin when used together with drugs that contain Kaolin, since it interferes with the absorption of Clindamycin and therefore affects its function.

In this case, both drugs can be administered, but at different intervals, allowing at least two hours to elapse between taking each one so that it does not interfere with the desired effect of Clindamycin.

The clindamycin not be used along with other antibiotics such as erythromycin or chloramphenicol, because it causes an antagonistic effect thereon.

Oral contraceptives should not be administered together with antibiotics such as Clindamycin since an antagonistic effect arises in contraceptives and therefore loses its effectiveness, so the use of an alternative method or abstinence is recommended.

Do not miss this article Birth control pills: Contraindications, Properties, Benefit and Myths

Special care must be taken with topical clindamycin preparations when applied with other preparations containing salicylic acid, tretinoin, benzoyl peroxide, they can cause very irritating processes, with dry skin.

In patients with lung transplants and treatment with Clindamycin, the use of cyclosporine was increased, to maintain the desirable concentrations, and at the end of the treatment the cyclosporine doses were adjusted again.

The use of Clindamycin in surgeries or post-operative processes should be monitored because it can increase the effects of muscle-blocking drugs and thus, muscle weakness and even cardiorespiratory arrest occurs.

Clindamycin should be used or administered with food to avoid nausea and gastric discomfort that can cause gastric discomfort and cause damage to the epithelium of the stomach and esophagus (lesions such as gastroduodenal or esophageal ulcers) with prolonged administration.

Intramuscular injections of Clindamycin can cause neutropenia (a condition that allows infections to get worse).

How is Clindamycin stored and disposed of?

It is important to keep this and all medicines out of the reach of children since it is a medicine that can cause severe damage to the child’s body, if it is ingested and an overdose occurs, it could cause a fatal outcome.

Clindamycin should not be exposed to high temperatures so it must be kept in its original container, in the case of adult presentation and if it is pediatric it should not be stored in a very cold place as it tends to thicken its content.

It should be noted that after two weeks of using this medication in liquid form, it must be discarded as the medication loses its effectiveness.

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The medicine must be disposed of correctly to prevent it from getting into the hands of children and pets, so the resulting liquid can be disposed of without the bottle or go to waste centers designated for this purpose.

What should I do if I miss a dose?

If you forgot a dose, you should never double the next dose to make up for the forgotten dose, you should simply continue with the usual treatment, thus avoiding any negative reaction due to ingesting an excessive dose of the drug.

Always remember that, for viral diseases, common colds, or a simple virus , antibiotics should not be used , since Clindamycin only works against bacteria sensitive to its components, not against viruses.

Therefore, no effect would arise, on the contrary, it would cause the condition to worsen, resulting in side effects that are very harmful to health, such as pseudomembranous colitis.

A general advice for treatments, either with antibiotics or other types of medications, is to always maintain a sufficient staff of the indicated medication to avoid failures in the administration of the drug.

Normally this type of medication is sold with a medical prescription, therefore, the treating doctor will place the amount that you must acquire to comply with the treatment without failures.

Other uses of Clindamycin

Clindamycin can be used in cases of severe acne that has not responded to other treatments, showing great improvement.

It should be taken into account that a series of side effects may occur according to the response of each organism, which can range from moderate to severe, such as pseudomembranous colitis, so we must be cautious in the use of this drug. .

Clindamycin can be used like Doxycycline in emergencies when exposed to anthrax in terrorist attacks, along with other drugs to produce a synergistic effect and enhance the action of drugs used in this type of situation.

We recommend reading the following for more information Doxycycline: Contraindications, Properties and Benefits

Clindamycin can be used in cases of Malaria, toxoplasmosis infections, endocarditis, among other conditions.

Why is Clindamycin said to be a broad spectrum antibiotic?

The term broad spectrum antibiotic refers to the ability of the drug to act on a large number of bacteria belonging to both Gram negative bacteria and Gram positive bacteria of equal efficacy.

The uses that can be given to this type of antibiotics are very wide, as is their pharmacological action.

Such is the case of Clindamycin, as it is a broad spectrum antibiotic, it is used in different diseases as bactericidal or bacteriostatic, as well as providing a synergistic effect in cases where you want to enhance the antibacterial action with other drugs.

It is important to point out that the broad spectrum of this type of antibiotics affects both pathogenic bacteria and bacteria belonging to the normal flora of the body , which perform important and essential functions to maintain a proper balance and prevent opportunistic bacteria from multiplying with them. that live together.

In the event that the use of any of the drugs belonging to the broad spectrum antibacterial classification is required, the bacteria that are part of the normal flora of the organism are seriously affected, leaving the path free for opportunistic bacteria that in this case they are not sensitive to Clindamycin and they multiply.

The broad spectrum of Clindamycin makes it a drug of choice after a major surgical intervention , because not only bacteria must be attacked but also those that may be opportunistic due to the vulnerability of the patient at that time.

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Despite this, the risks of using broad-spectrum drugs such as Clindamycin do not outweigh its benefits , so it is still used in infections that have generated resistance to other antibiotics, only its adverse effects should be taken into account and a constant monitoring of liver values ​​and kidney function.

As well as the general conditions of the person to whom the treatment is submitted, to act promptly in the event of any signs or symptoms related to serious effects on the proper functioning of the body.

Can I take Clindamycin if I am pregnant?

Clindamycin is contraindicated during the first three months of pregnancy , after this time it can be used only if the benefits of its use outweigh the risks, therefore a good evaluation with the treating physician should be envisaged.

The use of Clindamycin in the form of ovules has not been shown to be excreted or passed through breast milk to the infant, but even so, its administration is not recommended without the prior authorization of the doctor.

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Kathie Sand always saw the world of beauty as the terrain on which to build her professional career, a goal that was clear to her when she was only 15 years old. Her great concern to expand knowledge led her to settle in Paris where she studied hand in hand with the best beauty professionals and with the most advanced techniques for skin care.

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