Skin Spots in Children and Adults: Causes and Treatment

The skin is that naturally tailored suit, it is responsible for the physical appearance, it is what causes a first impression on you, not only because of the external color of the skin, but because it is the area where, for example The hair is born, which is a differential feature in each person, in addition to that between the skin and the muscles, the fat that defines the texture of each person is housed. Before talking about possible skin conditions, you need to understand that the skin is made up of 3 layers and that each one is essential:

  1. The Outer Layer or Epidermis: It is formed thanks to the union of many cell layers and its function is to eliminate impurities or dead cells responsible for dryness or premature aging of the skin.
  2. The Inner Layer or Dermis: It is responsible for activating the receptors of the sense of touch, that is, it allows you, for example, to feel pain if you mistakenly touch a hot pot with your hands, or on cold nights even while in a deep sleep awake the skin bristling from the cold.
  3. The Subcutaneous Tissue: It is considered as the support where both the dermis and the epidermis are located.

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The skin is of vital importance in every human being, it fulfills specific functions, including acting as a barrier that will prevent the passage of foreign agents into our body, so that this barrier function works perfectly, you must maintain total hygiene throughout the entire body . skin.

In the same way, the skin is responsible for maintaining the internal temperature despite external changes, since the skin reacts to the cold for example, making a constriction of the peripheral capillaries, it is there where you feel that the skin bristles, this It causes much less blood fluid to reach the skin, managing to conserve heat, if it is the case of losing heat due to a fever, the skin allows vascular dilation to take place.

The skin also has absorption functions, which is when it allows gases from the environment to enter the body, it also allows the entry of solar energy since the skin has melanocytes, these can convert provitamin A into vitamin A, thanks to the effects of sunlight.

In recent times it has been determined that the skin also has purifying functions , which occur from the inside out, many researches classify it as the third kidney of human beings, perspiration is an excellent purifier, since the composition of sweat is similar to that of urine, apart it also allows this process of perspiration through sweat to be considered as a supplementary mechanism for eliminating metabolic waste.

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What are spots on the skin?

The spots on the skin are alterations that are evidenced by a change in appearance or color in a certain area of ​​our body, these vary according to the causes for which they appear, that is why you have to be very aware of observing your body , and go to specialists if necessary.

Causes of skin spots

The skin allows the body to release all those substances that are harmful to the body that are soluble in liquids, which is why the skin is currently recognized as the third kidney, both organs are excretory and have a synergy of operation, it is for this reason that any treatment used to purify our body to cure skin diseases will allow an increase in the amount of substances that the body expels through sweat or urine, without ignoring other excretory systems such as defecation and respiration adequate.

At present, the obvious relationship between skin problems and metabolic processes has been documented , if a person suffers from fluid retention, gastrointestinal problems or constipation, in order to improve any skin condition, they must first correct the previous conditions.

The stimulation of the elimination mechanisms works very well against skin problems, by stimulating organic purification, what doctors identify as a healing crisis can occur in humans; that is evidenced with a worsening of the symptoms, that is, the spots become more noticeable, this changes after the body assimilates the treatment.

Another probable cause that increases the probability of suffering from stains or variations in skin color is the use of heating and a large amount of clothing to keep warm, since they prevent the skin from eliminating dead cells, especially if synthetic material garments are used. that if they achieve the objective of isolating the skin from the cold but do not allow adequate perspiration.

It is important to identify what health factors could generate spots or changes in the natural pigmentation of the skin, it is very common to see people who have liver problems with white spots around the neck and on the back, as well as more complicated cases such as vitiligo which are less pigmented spots.

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Appear and disappear

These can be due to different factors, for example there are spots caused by allergies to any external element, spots on the skin can appear due to food allergies.

They appear after the person ingests one or more foods that the body identifies as foreign agents and other problems apart from stains such as burning in the oral area, choking cough, respiratory distress and in more serious cases vomiting and diarrhea may be evident. , all this disappears after a specialist indicates the correct dose of an anti-allergenic drug.

It is important that you go to the doctor as quickly as possible, also urticaria and angioderma are spots that appear and disappear without the person knowing why it happens, they are like raised spots that are perfectly visible to the naked eye, they cause a lot of discomfort and itching .

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These are presented by constant exposure to UV rays, currently large advertising companies present different options in products daily aimed at combating the negative effects of the sun on the skin, since there are more cases of skin cancer every day, That is why it is advisable to apply sunscreen on the skin 30 minutes before leaving home.

The spots that are produced by the solar rays can vary in each person being more noticeable in the area of ​​the forearm and in the face. A high production of melanin causes some parts of the body to change color , this is because the areas that are constantly exposed to the sun will produce more melanin, which will change the natural pigmentation, originating the dreaded spots.

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Spots that change color

In this space the senile spots are located , which are these typical brown spots, which can become lighter or darker than they appear in most people with advanced ages and that change their pigmentation due to climatic factors or food, It is scientifically the accumulation of a pigment called lipofucsin, which is a by-product of the cellular degradation of the skin caused by the presence of free radicals.

It has been shown that free radicals cause attacks on cell membranes and that this generates a microscopic process of cellular aging, also the spots that change color on the skin are related to dietary deficiencies, excess exposure to the sun, and the consumption of low biological quality fats. In many of the cases in which women are using oral contraceptives , changes in skin tone are also manifested, especially on the face, this is due to hormonal interaction.

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It is a skin irritation that manifests itself with itching, redness and flaking in the affected skin area, in most cases the peeling of the skin with dermatitis is the result of an allergic process. Dermatitis is generated by contact with metals or substances that are irritating to the touch.

As a preventive measure, the person who feels that the skin is irritated more easily than other people should go to the use of moisturizing and protective creams, as well as maintain a balanced diet rich in vitamins A, E and C , as well as include essential oils specifically those that come from omega 3 and 6, in the same way you should consume in abundant quantities fresh fruits and foods of organic origin .

On the contrary, you should avoid consuming foods that can cause allergic reactions such as shellfish, strawberries, peanuts and most importantly avoid eating foods that have additives and preservatives.

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Diseases that cause skin blemishes

The spots on the skin are related to many diseases that affect the human being, it is common to see people who are receiving chemotherapy treatments as spots appear in almost any area of ​​the body, many times they are never disappear, in the same way the spots in the skin is due to cellular aging this is a complex process that involves a series of generally irreversible changes, but you can slow down their progress with specialized help:

  • Thinning of the skin: It is due to the decrease in the life of the skin cells, which are responsible for producing keratin, which is what allows the skin to have resistance.
  • Reduction of the secretion of fats and sweat: This reduces the hydrolipidic capacity of the skin.
  • Alterations in the synthesis of pigments: This causes the appearance of spots and depigmentation.
  • Decrease in collagen in the dermis: Produces the loss of elasticity and favors the appearance of wrinkles.
  • Formation of free radicals: They are due to both external contamination and inadequate nutrition.

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Stress is a trigger for many health conditions, the condition of the skin will reflect what level of tension a person may be dealing with, it has been scientifically proven that psoriasis, alopecia, itching, petechiae, vitiligo are spots or dermatological conditions caused by the high level of stress, it is important to note that each person has a capacity to respond to the stressors that they have in the environment in which they operate, that is why we must pay attention to the signals that our body sends us, see each situation From positivism, below I present the conditions that you could present in the skin due to stress:

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They are possibly one of the most common dermatological problems that can be seen in a person with a lot of stress.

Although in most cases they are not related to any other disease, they can also be due to complicated health situations, the first thing you should do is try not to scratch the affected area since you could complicate the situation, to do so you must make sure that your Hands are clean because otherwise the wounds that the nails cause when scratching an area of ​​the skin could be infested.

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They are small red points that appear on the skin, they are also known as ruby ​​points, they are formed due to the agglomeration of blood vessels, they are generally presented as a sign of skin aging, it is also related to circulatory problems and stress. As a way of prevention, it is advisable to consume foods that tone the veins such as beets, blackberries and raspberries.

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It occurs in areas where the skin flakes and becomes red, it affects the skin where there is greater friction on the body such as the knees, elbows, scalp and body folds.

It also has a hereditary character and is due to excessive growth in the outermost layer of the skin. People with psoriasis have a physical appearance that makes a lot of impression on other people, which generates a series of affectations at the level of self-esteem.

It manifests itself as a form of outbreaks that increase notably thanks to the mood, nervousness and stress of the sufferer, currently there is no definitive cure for this disease.


It is known as leukoderma, it is characterized by the presence of spots of less pigmentation, totally white that counteract the original color of the affected person, in most cases they affect the entire body.

In many cases, vitiligo is the result of a condition in the thyroid gland , and in fact more cases have been documented in people who have undergone surgical removal of this gland, its progress is also favored when the person is subjected to constant stress.

Lack of vitamins that cause skin blemishes

The absence of vitamin A and Zinc may be some of the factors that influence the appearance of spots since these are essential supplements for the proper growth and development of skin and hair.

Studies carried out in many countries of the world reveal that people with spots on their faces had very low levels of zinc in their blood, and although they had optimal levels of vitamin A, the problem is that they cannot preserve it properly due to the low presence of zinc.

It is presumed that the presence of zinc helps vitamin A to perform its functions correctly, on the other hand it was also investigated and found that the lack of zinc causes a thickening of the sebaceous glands.

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Stains due to genetic factors

Currently there are studies that relate some spots to hereditary characters, such is the case of fibromatosis, it is a genetic condition that affects the nervous system mainly as well as the bones and skin, they are slightly light spots, and some people have visible nodules in much of the body, this disease is due to a genetic mutation and it is possible that it is transmitted from generation to generation.

The port wine stain occurs in newborn children due to a genetic malformation in the capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels found in our body, in most cases this stain appears on the face, begins in the forehead and crosses the entire face.

The melasma, spots are very common in dark – skinned women , they are are light brown color, which gives them suffer more aesthetic than physical discomfort, because they change the face completely.

We can also mention melanoma , which are cancerous spots that are produced by melanin present in cells.


These respond to alterations that may occur in skin pigmentation, whether due to constant exposure to the sun, the use of hormones, the use of inappropriate cosmetics or the use of long-term oral or injectable contraceptives or due to genetic causes. like melasma.

You can go to a dermatologist since these sometimes have to confuse most of the women, the spots of hormonal origin invade the face from the front, the cheeks and the chin area.

Fungus or herpes

Herpes simplex is the set of vesicles that usually appear on the lips after a fever or infection, during the menstrual period or when the immune system does not have the necessary defenses. It usually appears after 2 days of being infected and lasts for 10 days or more. Allergic people are more likely to get it.

On the other hand , athlete’s foot is a fungal infection, it bears that name since it is very common for athletes to get infected in common showers or in common pools, that is, anyone can get it, it produces vesicles between the toes of the feet or hands, which cause itching and in more severe cases break and secrete liquids with unpleasant odors.

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These skin conditions are related to the melanocytes that favor a high production of melanin that is responsible for the pigmentation of the skin, it is there where the hypo or hyperpigmentation of the skin originates, such as the purplish red spots that can appear in any part of the body are caused by the constriction of those blood vessels that are located in the skin, these are called hemangiomas.

This type of stains can also be observed in those areas where people decide to get tattoos, and a bad practice of these can trigger a series of conditions that worsen the skin.

The spots that occur in the elderly or senile spots are also hyperchromic since they respond to cellular aging.

Women in a pregnant state in some cases also suffer from this type of spots on the face area, known as pregnancy spots or melasmas.


The spots product of the hyperpigmentation of the skin cause a lot of astonishment in the people who develop them, since they are dark in color, appear all over the face and on the hands, it is almost impossible to hide them, so generally people go very quickly to specialists in the area.

These appear when our skin has an excess of melanin, this causes the main layer of the skin to thicken and take on a rough texture with spots that range from a brown to a black color

A very common case is postoperative hyperpigmentation. This originates around the area where the wound is, as a result of this surgical process, it is well known that when you have a wound of that magnitude, the skin never returns to its normal color in the affected area.

Itchy spots

There are spots on the skin that produce an unbearable itchy sensation, such is the case of conditions such as urticaria, atopic dermatosis, mosquito bites, contact dermatitis. Urticaria is almost always the product of an allergic reaction to some external factor, in some cases the use of anti-inflammatories or antibiotics, the consumption of foods such as eggs, milk or shellfish.

The skin lesions produced by hives are red like rashes and the itching is excruciating. For its part, atopic dermatitis is a condition of genetic origin in some of the layers of the skin, it does not have a specific treatment that eliminates it completely, they only control it, it is a burning and itching sensation in the affected area, especially in hours at night, many people cannot fall asleep due to this disease.

The insect bites or mosquitoes can cause allergic reactions very strong suffering people particularly sensitive to the poison and sometimes can cause death. People develop red patches that become inflamed and itchy when in contact with clothing.

Contact dermatitis is one that occurs when the skin comes into contact with a substance that our body considers an irritant.

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According to their importance, the burns can be of the first, second or third degree , the skin is shown after an injury of this type is red and bulging, in second degree burns there are blisters that contain liquid inside, and in the most serious , the third degree, a destruction of muscle and connective tissue is generated.

On the other hand, sunburns can also occur, they usually have a wider range capacity, increasing the chances that the person will become dehydrated and causing definitive lesions on the entire skin.

Bad nutrition

Nutrition problems directly affect the quality of the skin, so a change in diet can be very useful as a treatment against the appearance of any type of spots.

However, you must take into account that all nutritional treatment tries to modify all the elements that make up the tissue, that is, the entire skin with its layers and this would take a time that has not yet been calculated exactly, so it is a matter of discipline and continue until you get the improvement you want.

In the same way, there is a lot of relationship between the mental state and skin diseases; anxiety, depression, despair, and impatience can further aggravate a dermatological problem. To keep skin in optimal condition it is necessary that:

  • Drink plenty of fluids: The hydration of the skin begins from the inside, this will also favor the condition of the nails.
  • Follow a balanced diet : You should avoid consuming fried foods, animal fats and refined oils in general, it is only recommended to consume olive or canola oil. You should also avoid beverages that contain large amounts of sugar, such as industrialized soft drinks and juices.
    Therefore, you should add to your meals fats of vegetable origin, foods rich in sulfur such as cabbage , cauliflower, broccoli, garlic, onions , since these help to maintain the elasticity and smoothness of the skin.
  • Avoid prolonged exposures to sunlight: Sunbathing without adequate protection is very damaging to the skin, especially the summer sun and that of certain hours of the day. It causes wrinkles, dryness, rashes and in other cases more serious injuries.
  • Do not smoke: Tobacco damages the skin because it contains toxic substances and also promotes the formation of free radicals, the skin loses elasticity and more wrinkles are formed.
  • Use natural cosmetics only if necessary: if the skin is very dry, it is advisable to apply a cream containing calendula and aloe vera , it can be applied abundantly at night.
    This and other dermatological creams are very fast and effective in suppressing the symptoms of many dermatological problems, it is important that you understand that without proper medical supervision you can cause atrophy and weakness in the skin and a greater possibility of suffering infections.

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Bad circulation

The problems in blood circulation do not have a specific age in terms of the people who could be affected, this disease is very silent, symptoms can be evident already when the problem is very advanced.

Many doctors diagnose it when people appear red spots on their feet, in some cases they become inflamed ulcers that cause a lot of pain, red dot rashes appear more commonly on the legs, the skin becomes discolored this is due because when people suffer from poor circulation, oxygen does not arrive correctly and for this reason the skin does not have a pleasant color.

Why do they appear during pregnancy?

It is very common to notice changes in the color of the face in some pregnant women , these are due to that biological hormonal process typical of the stage they are living, this type of spots is called chloasma, it is very variable in terms of size and color, some women their faces are completely stained, others on the other hand are accentuated more only on the cheekbones.

To avoid making them worse if you already have them, you should avoid exposing yourself to the sun specifically when it is at its best, that is, you should avoid going out at noon or early afternoon, in many cases these disappear once the time of delivery or after of this.

During breastfeeding

After birth, the human body is still in that pitched battle of hormones that seek to restore optimal levels, it is there that women are weaker in the face of the constant physical changes that childbirth brings.

During this process, the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease markedly and the cells are in recovery, it is for this reason that the skin during this time shows signs of dryness, sagging and in severe cases wrinkles appear .

Once the breastfeeding time decided by the mother is over, dermatologists offer many options to eliminate chloasma, ranging from the application of glycolic acid to the application of mechanical dermabrasion with a radio-scalpel.

Spots in children and young people

Children and young people in many cases are affected by the appearance of white spots on shoulders and arms that can be due to constant exposure to the sun without adequate protection, they are called pityriasis alba and do not appear due to lack of vitamins or poor diet, they are evidenced by receiving a lot of sunlight or strong gusts of wind daily.

It is important that before the appearance of any abnormality in the skin of our children and young people, we seek help from specialists.

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Malignant or Benign skin spots

Both can manifest themselves, that is why it is important to know what affects you and seek specialized help, brown, purple, senile spots, related to pregnancy are conditions of benign origin, that is, they are controlled or cured with non-invasive treatments, not This is the case of skin cancer, which then generates a condition of spots of malignant origin.

These are grouped into three types of lesions and differ notably from each other, these lesions are Basal-Cell Carcinoma, it is also called Epithelioma Spino-Cell Carcinoma Malignant Melanoma Basal Cell Carcinoma is a small reddish lesion and makes the skin look slightly When raised, it develops more easily on the arms, hands and feet. It is closely related to uncontrolled sun exposure, and has been shown to affect people more than their skin tone is white.

Second is Squamous Cell Carcinoma; which are small nodules that become inflamed and scaly appear more frequently on the edge of the ears or on the knuckles of the hands, in third place is malignant melanoma , it is related to the uncontrolled production of melanin in the skin, it appears more frequently near where people have mole spots.


When choosing any treatment to treat skin blemishes it is necessary that you follow the instructions of a dermatologist because otherwise you can affect even more the area you want to improve, applying moisturizers with hyaluronic acid at night is a very good option for avoid the appearance of benign spots. Or use chemical-free bath gels, like the one you can find from the Dalire brand ; from which you can benefit thanks to its natural ingredients, such as aloe vera and jojoba among others.

It is also recommended to use soaps of organic origin, that is, those that include in their components the healing properties of aloe vera, and argan oil to provide softness to the skin.

In the same way, you should choose a natural glycerin soap, or almond milk , lemon and turmeric , they are used daily and as many times as you want to clean your face or entire body.

Natural fruit and vegetable juices

Natural juices provide a large amount of vitamins and antioxidants that are favorable for the body, in the morning it is recommended that you add a carrot with orange juice to the blender, take it cold apart from being pleasant to the taste, the carrot provides a large amount of beta-carotene and vitamin C is rich in antioxidants that promote skin cell rejuvenation. The apple in juices provides malic acid and tartaric acid, these have the function of expelling dead cells from the body, in the same way you can make a smoothie that contains celery, cucumber and pineapple, these are rich in vitamin A and C, iron and phosphorus. In addition, cucumber is an excellent protector and toner of the skin.

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Skin spots and diabetes

People who suffer from any type of diabetes are more prone to developing spots on the skin since the excess sugar that their body does not process through the pancreas favors the appearance of skin infections.

People affected by diabetes always have thick itchy skin, in some cases the skin turns purplish and in more severe cases blisters appear that cause excruciating pain and are very difficult to fully heal.

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Eliminate skin blemishes with home remedies

Taking care of our skin is a task that we must perform daily, that is why to show off a hydrated face it is enough that every night you make a mixture of oats with honey and place it in the form of a mask for about 15 minutes, this will allow you to maintain moisturized skin and it is also a powerful astringent, if on the contrary you want to relax the skin you can take long immersion baths in warm or cold water according to your taste, a relaxed skin has a better appearance.

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If it is the case that you already have a stain in a specific place such as the face, you can apply aloe vera poultices at night , this has great healing potentialities that will make the skin tone return to its normal color. In cases of burns, aloe juice is very useful as it relieves pain and stimulates healing.

In second and third degree burns, the application of aloe is carried out in a second phase, that is, when the healing process has already begun.

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The cold clay is also a very effective option when the skin is affected by a first – degree burn.

The baths bicarbonate are very useful to prevent these skin conditions that cause staining and severe itching, preparation is very simple, it is only necessary to add 100 to 200 grams of bicarbonate to water in a bathtub and remain within more than half hour gently rubbing the skin.

You can also use Comfrey root , it is very rich in allantoin, which is a very widely used substance in the cosmetic and dermatological area due to its healing properties. However, you should only use it externally, you can use its fresh roots, boil in about 250 ml of water, then when it is at room temperature in that water soak sterile gauze and with this apply on the affected area, it is very effective in the treatment of ulcers on the skin preventing them from leaving unpleasant spots.

The honey is also a classic remedy for stimulating healing processes, also enzymes present in honey help dissolve connective tissue membranes which tend to form the skin inflammations.

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Kathie Sand always saw the world of beauty as the terrain on which to build her professional career, a goal that was clear to her when she was only 15 years old. Her great concern to expand knowledge led her to settle in Paris where she studied hand in hand with the best beauty professionals and with the most advanced techniques for skin care.

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